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Since the main international agreements referring to fundamental human rights, children’s rights, personal data and privacy have come into force, Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners worldwide have grown increasingly concerned over the online encroachment into the private lives of children.

Understanding that digital technology raises various new challenges in terms of data protection and privacy, that the legal framework alone cannot provide all the answers and guarantees required at the same time, Data Protection Authorities have recognized that an education-based approach, combined with data protection regulation, was one of the was one of the most effective methods of addressing the issue challenging the protection of children’s privacy on the Internet.

Owing to their expertise, data protection authorities considered it necessary to make a useful contribution to the training in this field and, acted in the first place in two directions, to: - Promote digital literacy and play a part in educating all relevant parts of the public, at all ages, to enable them to: o Acquire the essential skills needed to effectively participate in the digital environment; o Become informed and responsible actors in the digital environment; and o Efficiently make use of their rights and be aware of their duties. - Act together, in association with all relevant stakeholders, as it is a shared responsibility issue, involving all public and private stakeholders – from governmental authorities to educational institutions, such as schools, from providers of social network services to consumer and user associations. 2013 Resolution on Digital Education for All [1]introduced by the French Data Protection Authority (CNIL) and adopted by some 100 accredited Data Protection Authorities.

An international working group dedicated to digital education (DEWG) has been established to put into effect these operational objectives with annual action plans [2]coordinated by CNIL and moderated by the CNIL’s Chair, Isabelle FALQUE-PIERROTIN.

To this end, Data Protection authorities have developed collaboration with institutional partners and stakeholders internationally as well as locally, to share best practices and implement educational activities, among others: [See Principal findings of the DEWG study [3])

 creation and publication of a great number of quality pedagogical resources with regard to data protection, such as videos on protecting Youth privacy, Comics, cartoons, online games, Manuals, fact sheets for educators, Mixed ready-to use educational kits, Lesson plans/ scenarios, Posters with tips.

 Creation of a common digital education web platform sharing resources in digital education - CIRCABC web platform available to DPAs. - To be extended to the education community

 Creation of a Guide for competition towards Young people - Outlining what worked well - Inventorying a wide variety of best practices among national competitions - Based on a benchmark study, it appeared that the organisation of national competitions proved also to be an efficient and popular means for raising awareness at Young people in Primary and Secondary schools.

Despite DPAs active commitment in the production of a great number of teaching materials, a progress report highlighted that there was basically a real lack of training for educators regarding data protection and privacy, which put a veritable brake on the dissemination of digital education tools.

In this regard, they developed and adopted in October 2016 a common base of concrete and operational competencies within an international Competency Framework for teaching school students on data protection and privacy, intended to educators. [4]

Regarding its content: - 9 key areas of competences and skills are listed as the most cardinal competences - It encompasses what children should learn about and understand as a priority to address privacy risks and be able to exercise their rights under privacy laws with respect for democratic values and citizenship.

Regarding the learning objectives to be attained: - Acquiring critical knowledge and understanding of digital rights and responsibilities, - Developing critical thinking skills in young people towards the uses of personal data, - Raising awareness of risks, and teaching practices to enable people to navigate the digital environment with confidence, lucidity and respect for the rights of everyone.

The 2016 International Conference of Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners [5]adopted a new Resolution on Privacy education, which called on governments and in particular, responsible education authorities and other stakeholders working in the education field to promote this competency framework and have it included in study programs and curricula as well as and in the training of educators, regardless of the discipline taught.

Next steps: - How to plug the competency framework with resources by age groups concerned and in compliance with curricula? - How educators could implement these teaching principles in the classroom setting.


  Scaling up in 2013 to a multi-stakeholder approach with creating a Collective for Digital Education:

Since May 2013, the CNIL has been facilitating a highly diverse Collective of 60 stakeholders from the world of education and research, the parent community, the civil society, the digital economy, company foundations and other institutions - all these member structures operating on a non-profit basis. [6] The Collective is based on a common will: working together to make digital culture a priority and has decided to give priority to educational Joint actions targeting Young people. Concrete joint accomplishments and key actions:

Educnum Awards (3rd round) [7] - The aim is to raise awareness among very young people of the proper use of the Web, to highlight innovative educational projects promoting intergenerational dialogue, - where again it is the young people who teach even younger people how to protect their privacy and develop Best practices on the web; - With the Support of the Ministries of National Education and Youth and Sports - In partnership with media newspapers, radios, France tv education channel - Candidates: students aged 18 to 25, from all possible High Schools - Target: 10-14 year olds

 Educnum Website [8] funded and moderated by the CNIL. - This website aims to inform about digital education: with news from the members of the Collective, educational initiatives, teaching resources, competitions, events.  Annual Events & Trade shows  Support for digital education projects

	Producing resources Tutorials, videos (e.g.: Share the party, Cookieviz) Practical leaflets, teaching aids (e.g.: quiz “les Incollables”), the leaflet "My Data, Internet Tracking and Me" for the European program Safer Internet,… Poster « The 10 tips to stay safe on the web »

	Training for trainers:

The Young Ambassadors of Children’s Right (JADE) - Since 2007, young volunteers aged 17 to 25 engaged in civic service to carry out a mission of nine months with the French “Defenseur des Droits” (Defendor of rights). - The mission of the Youth Ambassadors Rights with Children (so called “JADE”) aims to promote the rights of the child as set out by the Convention on the Rights of the Child as well as to educate young people so as to fight against discrimination in the promotion of equality and the protection of their privacy in a digital world. The right to privacy is one of the most requested issues by pupils from primary schools, colleges and high schools ► 50 000 children trained in 2016 Annual training of Community managers of football clubs for young people ► to make 14-17 year olds aware of the good use of social networks and of their e reputation ► 700 players/ year - The CNIL has been developing a specific teaching kit on social networks to train young football players in professional football training centers nationwide (14 - 17 years) on the proper use of social networks and how to control their e- reputation. [9]

Partnership with the French Ministry of Education  A major focus: the signing of a Convention with the French Ministry of Education in March 2015 [10]aiming to: - Create and make available educational resources - Organize training activities aimed at promoting awareness among teachers, of pupils, and of students to a responsible and informed use of digital technology and on our legislation - Develop “M@gistere” training paths aimed to teachers and school directors. [11]

As a conclusion, recommendations could be made on the part of enforcement authorities to contribute to a “critical” Internet Literacy:

Creating further synergies between data protection authorities and other stakeholders (public authorities such as ministries, education authorities, schools, parents associations, digital training organizations, etc.) in order to take advantage of the best education and training practices for online privacy protection.

In order to also have a better acceptance and understanding of the message, it might be recommended to work directly with the young and have the young people discuss among themselves: a. First fostering dialogue on the topic between young people (intergenerational) and with trainers and in this the trainers/educators have a key role to play b. Actively talking to them by their peers c. Advising them on safety basic rules and behaviors by students.

Provide changes in school curriculum to teach not only digital skills but data protection and privacy courses too.

Above all it is necessary to provide very young people with the keys and the tools they need to be prepared for their digital citizenship in the 21st century

Pascale RAULIN-SERRIER Senior Advisor Digital Education – CNIL Coordinator of the DEWG (Digital Education Working Group)